Science is the application of scientific knowledge to improve the quality of life. It is used to describe the scientific methods, observations, findings, results, and opinions of scientists regarding a specific subject. One can apply sciences to all aspects of life. This includes physical sciences, like Physics and Chemistry, as well as life sciences, like microbiology and immunology. In addition, there are other subtopics in the science of life.


Microbiology is the study of single-celled organisms, or microbes, and other related microbial nonliving entities that interact with other living things. The science covers yeast, protozoa, multicellular organisms, fungi, viruses, and others. The key terms used in this science include microbial, germs, pathogens, and bacteria. Also, the study of microbes is often used to explain human diseases.

Fungi are small organism that usually live on the surface of leaves, fruits, and plants, as well as in the mouths of animals and humans. Examples of fungi include yeasts, mycoplasma, fungi, protozoa, and bacteria. Germs are the first inhabitants on the earth since microbes first appeared on the earth. Examples of germs include viruses, bacteria, and parasites.

The study of the growth, development, and changes of microorganisms is called microbiology. Studying microorganisms is important for medicine. The field of medicine relies on the data collected through microbiology studies to treat infections, detect and develop cures for disease, and detect the causes of diseases. For instance, antibiotics are used to cure bacterial infections, gonorrhea and herpes are treated by antibacterial agents, and cancer is cured by surgery. Microbiology thus plays a vital role in modern medicine.

The field of microbiology also studies the immune system, a natural defense mechanism of the body against invading organisms and diseases. Some microorganisms are harmful, while some acts as our natural defense. We get sick when the immune system is weakened. For instance, HIV/AIDS is a result of the lack of a person’s immune system. Microbiology can be studying in various ways. One way is through the study of bacteria, virus, and cells, examining the functions of the immune system, looking for the disease process, detecting and diagnosing potential problems, developing new drugs to cure diseases, and monitoring the immune system and its functions.

A major part of microbiology is understanding the structure of DNA and RNA, the building blocks of life. The DNA and RNA of living things can be studied in great detail using various techniques. Microscopy is an important part of this study and it involves using small instruments such as optical microscopes or fluorescent probes inserted under the microscope slide. Different species of microorganisms form different patterns of DNA and RNA, so understanding the function of these molecules is important to preventing or curing disease.

There are two major branches of microbiology, clinical and basic. Clinically, it studies diseases affecting humans or animals and basic concepts of microbiology, such as regulating the growth of microorganisms in controlled environments and identifying the causes of pathogenic microorganisms and their evolution. Basic microbiology looks into the causes of bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. This branch also looks into the causes of environmental contamination and the control of contamination.

Microbial contamination is a big problem all over the world. It can be caused by a variety of sources like pesticides, chemicals, drugs, polluted water, plants, animals and microorganisms. In most cases, prevention is better than cure because the offending organism may be difficult to find and destroy. Because of this, preventing any kind of contamination is very important. One should practice proper home handling of foodstuffs, use sanitary means to clean the house, keep food fresh and do not allow animal or insect bites.